Method: A cross-sectional descriptive correlation study was conducted with a convenience sample comprising 105 stroke patients living in the community. Data were collected using self-reporting questionnaires, including the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale and the Korean version of the Modified Barthel Index (K-MBI). The Berg Balance Scale was used to measure balance ability. A path model was tested to investigate the causal relations between variables, using the AMOS 17.0 statistical program to analyze the models, to obtain maximum-likelihood estimates of model parameters and to provide goodness-of-fit indices.
Results: The proposed path model showed good fit indices. The direct path was significant between balance self-efficacy and balance (0.583), between balance and ADL (0.455). The indirect path was significant between balance self-efficacy and ADL (0.015).
Conclusion: Our results support the link between balance efficacy, balance, and ADL in stroke patients. The proposed conceptual model was a good fit for the data and provided a plausible framework for understanding the relationship among these factors in stroke patients. Our model may also guide the intervention of functional rehabilitation for stroke patients.
Implications for Rehabilitation:
- Balance self-efficacy, a psychological factor, should not be overlooked in attempting to improve functional outcomes in stroke survivors because balance self-efficacy impact ADL through the mediation of balance ability
- It would be appropriate to assess the balance efficacy as well as balance ability for maximizing performing tasks such as ADLs for individual with stroke
- Interventions that use a combination of balance training and balance self-efficacy enhancement could be the most effective for improving ADL in the case of community-dwelling stroke patients